Blood Clot in Lung: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism

2) Surgical embolectomy

Surgical thrombolysis may be considered when there is a high risk of recurrent embolism despite anticoagulation therapy. This is typically done via percutaneous catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), which involves the placement of a catheter into the pulmonary artery and injecting clot-dissolving agents. Although CDT is a safe and effective treatment for acute pulmonary embolism, anticoagulation therapy should be considered first.

Surgical management of pulmonary embolism is only indicated in the presence of hemodynamic instability, persistent hypoxemia, persistent or recurrent dyspnea, or acute right ventricular failure. It is particularly useful in hemodynamically unstable patients with massive pulmonary embolisms.